Adapting social protection to the needs of multiple jobholders in Denmark, the United Kingdom and Germany

Jerg, L., O'Reilly, J. and Schulze Buschoff, K. (2021) Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research

Working in two or more jobs at the same time creates special needs in terms of social security that differ from those of standard dependent employees or the self-employed. To investigate how well social security systems adapt to multiple jobholders we examine three case studies of countries with different levels and trends in multiple jobholding: Denmark, the United Kingdom and Germany. We review recent trends and policies to address social protection gaps for multiple jobholders in these countries prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the extent to which the emergence of the ‘platform economy’ can exacerbate multiple jobholding. We conclude that attempts to resolve the gaps in social security protection reflect distinctive characteristics of each employment system.

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